Rock Art Research & Art History

Rock Art Research & Art History

u p ' d . 2 5 . j a n . 2 0 2 1 .


Email (Norfolk State University)

"I shall retire into the bosom of my native state, endeared to me
by every tie which can attach the human heart."
› T. Jefferson (1809)


Art History
› For my NSU Art History students


Rock Art
› About rock art
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› etc





Melisa Quesenberry
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About Rock Art


Morales, Reinaldo Jr., and Howard Risatti. “Pre-Columbian Rock Art and Sensitive Cognition.” In Aesthetics, Applications, Artistry and Anarchy: Essays in Prehistoric and Contemporary Art. A Festschrift in honour of John Kay Clegg 11 January 1935 – 1 March 2015, edited by Jillian Huntley and George Nash, 9–24. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2019. {see the Archaeopress open access page here}

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “North American Rock Art Research 2010–2014.” In Rock Art Studies: News of the World V, edited by Paul Bahn, Natalie Franklin, Matthias Strecker, and Ekaterina Devlet, 225–243. Oxford: Archaeopress Publishing, 2016. {see the Archaeopress open access page here}

Farmer, James D., and Reinaldo Morales Jr., eds. “Great Mural Traditions of the American Southwest.” In Ancient Hands Around the World: International Federation of Rock Art Organizations 2013 Abstracts, 36–41. Glendale, AZ: American Rock Art Research Association, 2013. {including: Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “1492 BC: The Golden Age of American Anthropomorphism.”}

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “Considerations on the Art and Aesthetics of Rock Art.” In Aesthetics and Rock Art, edited by Thomas Heyd and John Clegg, 61-74. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2005.

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr., and Melisa Quesenberry. “A Niche in Time: JD-5, Caribbean Cave Art, and the Fourth Dimension.” American Indian Rock Art, 31 (2005): 34–56.

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “The Angelim Style and Northeast Brazilian Rock Art.” In Making Marks: Graduate Studies in Rock Art Research at the New Millennium, edited by Jennifer K. K. Huang and Elisabeth V. Culley, 27–39. Tucson AZ: American Rock Art Research Association, 2005.

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “Masked Rites and Rock Art: Presenting the Past in Indigenous Brazilian Art.” In New Scholars/New Ideas 2003-2004. Compiled by James Farmer, Timothy Andrus and Michael Schreffler. Vols 9 and 10. Richmond, VA: VCU Arts, Department of Art History, 2005.

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr., and Claudia Cunha. “Chapada Diamantina Rock Art: New Evidence of Nordeste Tradition Rock Art in Bahia, Brazil.” American Indian Rock Art, 30 (2004): 137–148.

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “Art and Rock Art: Clarifying the Misconceptions.” Utah Rock Art 20 (2000): 49–62.

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “A Style Analysis of Prehistoric Miniature Paintings in Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico.” Lincoln National Forest Cultural Resources Report 2011-08-011. Alamogordo, NM, 2010.

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “The Nordeste Tradition: Innovation and Continuity in Brazilian Rock Art.” Virginia Commonwealth University, 2002. Director: James Farmer, Reader: Howard Risatti, Outside Reader: Terence Grieder.

Abstract, chapter excerpts, sample illustrations, and bibliography

Morales, Reinaldo, Jr. “Nordeste Paintings: The Case for a Pan-Archaic American Aesthetic.” Virginia Commonwealth University, 1998.

Abstract, sample illustrations and bibliography









"Professor discovers Mesoamerican cave art," by Sophia Ordaz, The Echo at UCA, October 5, 2016 {issuu}

"Arkansas Vets Rediscover the Art of War," by Malcolm Glover, KUAR Public Radio from UA Little Rock, June 14, 2010 {download mp3}

New Rock Art at Old Machu Picchu: UCA professor discovers ancient rock painting, UCA News, April 14, 2009

"UCA professor discovers ancient rock painting," by By Miranda Grubbs, Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, April 16, 2009


College Art Association

Association for Latin American Art

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts

Chrysler Museum of Art

Virginia Museum of Contemporary Art

Virginia Public Media

Tidewater Art Alliance

Society for American Archaeology

National Speleological Society

Archeological Society of Virginia

American Rock Art Research Association

Utah Rock Art Research Association


Arkansas Jazz Heritage Foundation {Facebook}

Arkansas Archeological Society


Some Readings on Style:

Irene Winter, "The Affective Properties of Styles: An Inquiry into Analytical Process and the Inscription of Meaning in Art History," in Picturing Science Producing Art, ed. Caroline A. Jones and Peter Galison (New York: Routledge, 1998), 55-73. [brief excerpt]

Terence Grieder, Artist and Audience, 2nd ed. (Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark, 1996), 140. [brief excerpt]

Greg Urban on Style: "Style means a form of language use characterizable independently of the content or semantic meaning that is communicated, which constitutes a sign vehicle that contrasts with others in a culture" (Greg Urban, A Discourse Centered Approach to Culture: Native South American Myths and Rituals [Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991], 106).

Heinrich Wölfflin, Principles of Art History: The Problem of the Development of Style in Later Art, trans. Marie Donald Mackie Hottinger (1932; New York: Dover, 1950).

Meyer Schapiro, "Style," in Anthropology Today: An Encyclopedic Inventory, ed. A. L. Kroeber (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953).

Berel Lang, ed., The Concept of Style, revised and expanded (1979; Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1987).

Polly Schaafsma, "Form, Content and Function: Theory and Method in North American Rock Art Studies," in Advances of Archaeological Method and Theory, ed. by M. Schiffer, vol. 8, pp. 237-277 (New York: Academic Press, 1985).

Margaret W. Conkey and Christine Hastorf, eds. The Uses of Style in Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Archives

Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí, Brazil [archive]
Information on visiting the park (travel details, contacts, comments, and links).

Pedra Furada Complete [archive]
A series of photographs showing the entire rock art site.

U.S. Dollar Coin Design Candidate [archive]
Design #36 by Thomas D. Rogers Sr. featuring rock art (posted with permission in 1999).






Over visitors since October 1998 (says the defunct GeoCities counter) is developed and maintained by Reinaldo Morales Jr.
All material © unless otherwise noted.

Chartres, 9:20 am, July 23, 1996


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